30. After the War

After taking all the steps described above on behalf of our soldiers, and primarily the soldiers of the 1st Ukrainian Division, most of whom were interned in Italy, a proposition was made to me by the Prime Minister of our Government-in-exile, Dr. K. Pankivsky, to take over the position of Chief of the General Staff and acting Minister of Military Affairs. Pursuant to a Decree of the Council of Ministers of November 3, 1945, an Order of the High Command confirmed my appointment. I was theoretically in charge of this post until May 1946, when I had to resign for personal reasons.

At one brief period I was living with my wife in Hoechst near Frankfort. I mention this because one day, when I was leaving Hoechst on a trip to see President Livytsky in Mainz-Kastel, I met Col. Kryzhanivsky, whom I mentioned before, at the station. Three days later, I received an "invitation" to appear at the C.I.C. post in Hoechst immediately. I was interrogated there as to whether I had collaborated with the Germans, and in what German unit I had been serving. When I gave a brief account about my alleged "collaboration," (incidentally the interpreter was a Jewish gentleman who was quite obviously taking my side), the investigating officer apologized for causing me trouble and showed me an anonymous letter informing on me. During the course of this unofficial part of our conversation, another C.I.C. officer, Mr. Stephen Skubik came in and told me in Ukrainian that the contents of the anonymous letter alerted them immediately that this must be some kind of provocation. Just a coincidence.

After my appointment as Chief of Staff, I came into frequent contact with our senior generals, the late Gen. M. Omelanovych-Pavlenko, and the late Gen. Vsevolod Petriv. We discussed and worried about our military and political future, about the problem of preserving the traditions of our struggle for independence, and we sought means to keep up a martial spirit among our soldiers who were our sole military potential. We understood well, and regretfully, that there was not the slightest cause for optimism, and that all our efforts, both of the Government as well as of the men themselves, should be confined to a preservation of the substance of the organization in quasi military form. Thus, was reestablished the Organization of Soldiers of the UNR from the Liberation Struggle period, and then came: the Brotherhood of Soldiers of the 1st Ukrainian Division, later Brotherhoods of Soldiers of the UPA and KUA (Carpatho-Ukrainian Army) and other organizations of youth of a semi-military nature. I did not directly participate in setting up these organizations, but in my opinion, they were a great asset to our military life.

For quite a long while I did not take part in political and civic activities of emigres, but spent my time studying. I also established contact with representatives of other nationality groups of the Prometheus Organization and we discussed chances of reestablishing that organization. Many people of that group were living in the neighborhood of Munich, and I had no difficulty in keeping in touch with them. Professor Roman Smal-Stocki was President of Prometheus, Prince Dr. G. Nakashidze was Vice-President, and Mr. B. Bilatti (an engineer) was Secretary; the two last-named lived in Munich. I succeeded in establishing contact with the representative of the Slovaks, Dr. Josef Pauco, the Polish officers Major Ponikewski and Captain Alexander put us in touch with Prometheus members who were living in London: General Tadeusz Pelczynski, Col. Tadeusz Schaetzel, and Mr. Stanislaw Paprocki. Prince Nakashidze was to leave for South America soon, and in the absence of Dr. Smal-Stocki, who had already gone to the United States, he transferred the leadership of Prometheus to me. In spite of all efforts and a friendly atmosphere of cooperation, external circumstances prevented us from reviving the activities of Prometheus.

Toward the end of 1947, as a result of continued efforts on the part of President Livytsky, Ukrainian emigres came to a decision that unification of all political and civic emigre forces was indispensable toward successful realization of our political and propaganda activities. This brought about the establishment of the Ukrainian National Council (UNRada). The formal part of this organization fell on Professor I. Mazepa. His work was long and arduous, but finally the composition of the UNRada was agreed upon, and it convened. I had the honor to be invited to its inaugural meeting on February 7, 1947. Chief of the Executive Branch of UNRada, Professor I. Mazepa again offered me the position of Chief of the General Staff. I consented, in spite of my doubts about possibilities to work. I also cautioned Professor Mazepa that I was making efforts to go either to the United States or to Argentina. Circumstances did not favor any constructive work, and there were no funds available even for a minimum amount of activities. Hopes were dim. I made a decision, that as long as I was able to work, I would go to the United States or to Argentina. My old friend, Colonel I. Ukhiv was in Argentina, and he sent me an affidavit. But thanks to the efforts of Professor Smal-Stocki and Professor and Mrs. Petro Andrusiv, I found refuge in this wonderful Land of the Free. Professor Smal-Stocki suggested that I should write a scholarly treatise and engage in scholarly work, but unfortunately, it was too late in life for me to do this. I had to earn a living, particularly since my wife was not well. Therefore, in spire of my age (70) I engaged in manual labor. In my rare spare moments I do research work and write articles on military subjects.

On a motion of Professor V. Kubiyovych made in 1948, I was elected to a regular membership in Shevchenko Scientific Society.